Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Bronchial tubes carries air to the lung. There are 2 types of bronchitis. 1) Acute bronchitis 2) Chronic bronchitis
Acute bronchitis: acute bronchitis is a condition which remain for 5 days to 1 week. It is contagious before 2-3 days of the symptoms appearance and during bronchitis also. Chances of contagiousness reduced as symptoms wane away.
Cause of acute bronchitis:
Virus: viruses which causes common cold and flus are mostly responsible for acute bronchitis like rhinovirus. It is responsible up to 20 % cases of acute bronchitis. Other viruses are parainfluenza, influenza, rhinovirus, adenovirus, RSV.
Bacteria: are less common reason for bronchitis. Bacteria like Mycoplasma, streptococcus, chlamydia pneumoniae, bordetella, Moraxella and haemophilus,
Lung irritator: like dust particles, smoking, gas, chemicals and pollution
Symptom of acute bronchitis:
- Low grade fever and chills
- Persistent cough
- Blocked nose and sinuses
- Sore throat
- Chest tightness
It is a serious condition in which cough remain more than 3 months out of the 2 persistent years. Frequent bouts of acute bronchitis for longer duration may cause chronic bronchitis.
- Muscle pains
Causes of chronic bronchitis:
- Smoking is a main cause for chronic bronchitis. 50% chronic bronchitis caused by smoking
- Other lung irritant like dust particles, smog, also causes chronic bronchitis.
- Viruses and bacteria which are responsible for acute bronchitis may causes chronic bronchitis.
- Frequent bouts of acute bronchitis causes chronic bronchitis.
- Immunodeficiency, underlying disease process like asthma, congestive heart failure, genetic factors may causes chronic bronchitis.
Symptom of chronic bronchitis:
Chronic bronchitis along with emphysema cause COPD. Sputum produced in the first half of the day but decreases in later half. Sputum colour varies from yellow, greenish or red tinged sputum
- Fever due to viral or bacterial infection
- Shortness of breath
- Wheezing sound
Complication of bronchitis:
- Respiratory failure
- Emphysema (collection of air or gas in lung causes lung collapse)
- Cor pulmonale (enlargement and weakness of right ventricle heart valve due to lung disease.